created_at2022-10-13 08:18:49.719079
updated_at2024-04-12 11:08:00.968002
descriptionLibrary for the Header Dictionary Triples (HDT) RDF compression format.
Konrad Höffner (KonradHoeffner)




Latest Version Lint and Test Documentation Benchmarks HDT Rust @ LD Party Video DOI

A Rust library for the Header Dictionary Triples compressed RDF format, including:

  • loading the HDT default format as created by hdt-cpp
  • efficient querying by triple patterns
  • serializing into other formats like RDF Turtle and N-Triples using the Sophia adapter

However it cannot:

  • load other RDF formats
  • load other HDT variants

For this functionality and acknowledgement of all the original authors, please look at the reference implementations in C++ and Java by the https://github.com/rdfhdt organisation.

It also cannot:

  • swap data to disk
  • modify the RDF graph in memory
  • run SPARQL queries

If you need any of the those features, consider using a SPARQL endpoint instead.


use hdt::Hdt;

let file = std::fs::File::open("example.hdt").expect("error opening file");
let hdt = Hdt::new(std::io::BufReader::new(file)).expect("error loading HDT");
// query
let majors = hdt.triples_with_pattern(Some("http://dbpedia.org/resource/Leipzig"), Some("http://dbpedia.org/ontology/major"),None);
println!("{:?}", majors.collect::<Vec<_>>());

You can also use the Sophia adapter to load HDT files and reduce memory consumption of an existing application based on Sophia, which is re-exported as hdt::sophia:

use hdt::{Hdt,HdtGraph};
use hdt::sophia::api::graph::Graph;
use hdt::sophia::api::term::{IriRef, SimpleTerm, matcher::Any};

let file = std::fs::File::open("dbpedia.hdt").expect("error opening file");
let hdt = Hdt::new(std::io::BufReader::new(file)).expect("error loading HDT");
let graph = HdtGraph::new(hdt);
let s = SimpleTerm::Iri(IriRef::new_unchecked("http://dbpedia.org/resource/Leipzig".into()));
let p = SimpleTerm::Iri(IriRef::new_unchecked("http://dbpedia.org/ontology/major".into()));
let majors = graph.triples_matching(Some(s),Some(p),Any);

If you don't want to pull in the Sophia dependency, you can exclude the adapter:

hdt = { version = "...", default-features = false }

There is also a runnable example are in the examples folder, which you can run with cargo run --example query.

API Documentation

See docs.rs/latest/hdt or generate for yourself with cargo doc --no-deps without disabling default features.


The performance of a query depends on the size of the graph, the type of triple pattern and the size of the result set. When using large HDT files, make sure to enable the release profile, such as through cargo build --release, as this can be much faster than using the dev profile.


If you want to optimize the code, you can use a profiler. The provided test data is very small in order to keep the size of the crate down; locally modifying the tests to use a large HDT file returns more meaningful results.

Example with perf and Firefox Profiler

$ cargo test --release
Running unittests src/lib.rs (target/release/deps/hdt-2b2f139dafe69681)
$ perf record --call-graph=dwarf target/release/deps/hdt-2b2f139dafe69681 hdt::tests::triples
$ perf script > /tmp/test.perf

Then go to https://profiler.firefox.com/ and open /tmp/test.perf.

Criterion benchmark

cargo bench --bench criterion

iai benchmark

cargo bench --bench iai

Comparative benchmark suite

The separate benchmark suite compares the performance of this and some other RDF libraries.

Community Guidelines

Issues and Support

If you have a problem with the software, want to report a bug or have a feature request, please use the issue tracker. If have a different type of request, feel free to send an email to Konrad.



If you use this library in your research, please cite our paper in the Journal of Open Source Software. We also provide a CITATION.cff file.

BibTeX entry

  doi = {10.21105/joss.05114},
  year = {2023},
  publisher = {The Open Journal},
  volume = {8},
  number = {84},
  pages = {5114},
  author = {Konrad Höffner and Tim Baccaert},
  title = {hdt-rs: {A} {R}ust library for the {H}eader {D}ictionary {T}riples binary {RDF} compression format},
  journal = {Journal of Open Source Software}

Citation string

Höffner et al., (2023). hdt-rs: A Rust library for the Header Dictionary Triples binary RDF compression format. Journal of Open Source Software, 8(84), 5114, https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.05114


We are happy to receive pull requests. Please use cargo fmt before committing, make sure that cargo test succeeds and that the code compiles on the stable and nightly toolchain both with and without the "sophia" feature active. cargo clippy should not report any warnings.

Commit count: 224

cargo fmt