created_at2023-11-02 17:51:49.237238
updated_at2024-01-06 16:07:58.40321
descriptionAn EVM low-level language that gives full control over the control flow of the smart contract.



Meplang - An EVM low-level language

Meplang is a low-level programming language that produces EVM bytecode. It is designed for developers who need full control over the control flow in their smart contracts.

Meplang is a low-level language and is not meant for complex smart contract development. It is recommended to use more high-level languages like Solidity or Yul for that.

Please note that the work on Meplang is still in progress, and users should always verify that the output bytecode is as expected before deployment.


  1. Install Rust on your machine.

  2. Run the following to build the Meplang compiler from source:

cargo install --git

To update from source, run the same command again.

Hello World

Here is an example of a simple Meplang contract, that returns "Hello World!" as bytes:

contract HelloWorld {
    block main {
        // copy the bytes into memory
        push(hello_world.size) push(hello_world.pc) push(0x) codecopy

        // return them
        push(hello_world.size) push(0x) return 

    block hello_world {
        // "Hello World!" as bytes

To compile this contract saved as hello_world.mep, run the following command:

meplang compile -contract HelloWorld -input hello_world.mep

Or the shortened version:

meplang compile -c HelloWorld -i hello_world.mep

This will print the runtime bytecode in the terminal. To export the compilation artifacts (including the runtime bytecode), use the argument -o or -output:

meplang compile -c HelloWorld -i hello_world.mep -o hello_world.json

Deployment bytecode

The compilation gives the runtime bytecode of the smart contract. To get the deployment contract, use an auxiliary contract, and compile it:

contract Constructor {
    block main {
        // copy the bytes into memory
        push(deployed.size) push(deployed.pc) push(0x) codecopy

        // return them
        push(deployed.size) push(0x) return 

    block deployed {

// the contract that will be deployed
contract Deployed {
    block main {
        // ...

Compile the contract Constructor to get the deployment bytecode of the contract Deployed.

Basic syntax

  • A contract is declared with the keyword contract. Many contracts can be defined in a single file. A contract can copy the runtime bytecode of another contract using &Contract.code inside a block.
  • A block is declared inside a contract using the keyword block. A block can be defined abstract (see later) using the keyword abstract before block. The first opcodes of the contract are from the necessary block named main (or a block surrounded by the attribute #[main]).
  • A constant is declared inside a contract using the keyword const. Constants can only be used inside a function push inside a block.
contract BalanceGetter {
    const BALANCE_OF_SELECTOR = 0x70a08231;
    const WETH = 0xC02aaA39b223FE8D0A0e5C4F27eAD9083C756Cc2;

    #[assume(msize = 0x00)]
    #[assume(returndatasize = 0x00)]
    block main {
        push(BALANCE_OF_SELECTOR) push(0x) mstore // mem[0x1c..0x20] = 0x70a08231
        #[assume(msize = 0x20)]
        address push(0x20) mstore // mem[0x20..0x40] = address(this)
        #[assume(msize = 0x40)]
        // mem[0x00..0x20] ={value: 0, gas: gas()}(mem[0x1c..0x20])
        //                 = WETH.balanceOf(address(this))
        push(0x20) push(0x) push(0x24) push(0x1c) push(0x) push(WETH) gas call
        #[assume(returndatasize = 0x20)]

        // the contract's balance in WETH is stored at mem[0x00..0x20]

        push(0x20) push(0x) return
  • Inside a block, any opcode can be used except PUSH1 to PUSH32 opcodes (PUSH0 is allowed). Raw bytecode can also be used as is. A value can be pushed using the function push, which can take an hexadecimal literal, a constant, a non-abstract block PC or size as an argument. Only values inside a push function will be optimized by the compiler.
contract Contract {
    const MAGIC_NUMBER = 0xff;

    #[assume(msize = 0x00)]
    block main {
        push(MAGIC_NUMBER) push(0x) mstore
        #[assume(msize = 0x20)]

        push(0x20) // can be replaced by the opcode `msize` during the compilation
        0x6020     // won't be changed at the compilation

        push(end_block.size) // will be replaced by the actual size of the block `end_block`
        push(end_block.pc)   // will be replaced by the actual pc of the beginning of the block `end_block`

    block end_block {
        jumpdest // do not forget to begin with jumpdest if we can jump on this block
        push(0x) push(0x) return
  • A non-abstract block can be copied at most once inside another block using the operator *. An abstract block can be copied as many times as desired inside other blocks using the operator &. Therefore, we cannot refer to the pc or to the size of an abstract block, because it may appear multiple times in the bytecode, and not be compiled the same every time.
contract Contract {
    #[assume(msize = 0x00)]
    block main {
        callvalue &shift_right_20_bytes // will most certainly be compiled `callvalue push1 0x20 shr`

        push(0x) push(0x) mstore
        #[assume(msize = 0x20)]

        callvalue &shift_right_20_bytes // will most certainly be compiled `callvalue msize shr` because we assumed msize = 0x20.

    abstract block shift_right_20_bytes {
        push(0x20) shr

    block end_block {
        // no jumpdest here because we do not jump on this block, we copy it
        push(0x) push(0x) return
  • Many attributes exist to guide the compiler. They are declared over a contract, a block, or a line inside a block using the syntax #[ATTRIBUTE]. The current list of existing attributes is:
    • assume to tell the compiler that from this point, an opcode will push on the stack a defined value. The compiler can then replace some push opcodes with these assumptions.
    • clear_assume to clear an assumption made previously.
    • main the main block can be marked with this attribute if it is not named main.
    • last to tell the compiler that the block must be placed at the end of the bytecode.
    • keep to tell the compiler that this block must be kept somewhere in the bytecode even if it is unused.

More examples of contracts can be found in the folder examples.

Future features

  • assert attribute to impose conditions on a block pc or a contract size.
  • Heuristics to improve compilation optimizations.
  • Inheritance of contracts.
Commit count: 121

cargo fmt