created_at2021-10-06 20:22:36.579394
updated_at2024-05-13 00:00:38.997323
descriptiona fast symbolic execution framework using r2



radius2 - fast symbolic execution with r2

radius2 is a fast symbolic execution and taint analysis framework using radare2 that is focused on covering many different architectures and executable formats. It also strives to be easy to use and has a CLI tool that makes some reversing tasks as easy as adding a symbolic value and setting a string to reach or avoid. Reversing challenges can be solved as easily as the example below.

$ radius2 -p ais3 -s flag 184 -X sorry

  flag : "ais3{I_tak3_g00d_n0t3s}"


Install radare2 with

git clone https://github.com/radareorg/radare2.git

Install radius2 with cargo install radius2 or include radius2 as a dependency using radius2 = "1.0.27"

Supported Architectures

  • x86
  • amd64
  • ARM
  • AArch64

"Supported" Architectures

radius2 also "supports" MIPS, PowerPC, and Gameboy but they are almost entirely untested. Additionally radius2 supports execution of cBPF and eBPF programs.

radius2 can execute Dalvik bytecode only involving static methods and variables.

Finally there is also a varying amount of support for 6502, 8051, AVR, h8300, PIC, RISCV, SH-4, V810, V850, Xtensa.

Also PCode can be translated to ESIL with r2ghidra with pdgp (currently broken, actually maybe fixed now) so potentially more archs could be supported that way.


use radius2::{Radius, Value};

fn main() {
    let mut radius = Radius::new("tests/r100");
    let mut state = radius.call_state(0x004006fd);
    let addr: u64 = 0x100000;
    let flag_val = state.symbolic_value("flag", 12 * 8);
    state.memory_write_value(&Value::Concrete(addr, 0), &flag_val, 12);
    state.registers.set("rdi", state.concrete_value(addr, 64));

    let mut new_state = radius.run(state, 1).unwrap();
    let flag = new_state.evaluate_string(&flag_val).unwrap();
    println!("FLAG: {}", flag);
    assert_eq!(flag, "Code_Talkers");

radius2 CLI tool

radius2 can also be installed from crates.io and easily included in packages. radius2 also has a CLI tool that can be installed with cargo install radius2

radius2 1.0.28
Austin Emmitt (@alkalinesec) <alkali@alkalinesecurity.com>
A symbolic execution tool using r2 and boolector

    radius2 [FLAGS] [OPTIONS] --path <path>

    -M, --automerge    Automatically merge states
    -V, --color        Use color output
        --crash        Execution stops on invalid memory access
    -h, --help         Prints help information
    -j, --json         Output JSON
    -z, --lazy         Evaluate symbolic PC values lazily
    -K, --merge-all    Merge all finished states
        --no-sims      Do not simulate imports
    -N, --no-modify    Disallow self-modifying code (faster sometimes)
        --no-strict    Don't avoid invalid instructions and ESIL
        --plugins      Load r2 plugins
    -P, --profile      Get performance and runtime information
    -2, --stderr       Show stderr output
    -0, --stdin        Use stdin for target program
    -1, --stdout       Show stdout output
        --version      Prints version information
    -v, --verbose      Show verbose / debugging output

    -a, --address <address>                   Address to begin execution at
    -A, --arg <arg>...                        Argument for the target program
    -x, --avoid <avoid>...                    Avoid addresses
    -X, --avoid-strings <avoid_strings>...    Avoid code xrefs to strings
    -B, --break-strings <break_strings>...    Breakpoint code xrefs to strings
    -b, --break <breakpoint>...               Breakpoint at some target address
    -c, --constrain <SYMBOL> <EXPR>           Constrain symbol values with string or pattern
    -C, --constrain-after <SYMBOL> <EXPR>     Constrain symbol or file values after execution
        --env <env>...                        Environment variable for the target program
    -e, --eval <ESIL>...                      Evaluate ESIL expression
    -E, --eval-after <ESIL>...                Evaluate ESIL expression after execution
    -f, --file <PATH> <SYMBOL>                Add a symbolic file
    -F, --fuzz <fuzz>                         Generate testcases and write to supplied dir
    -H, --hook <ADDR> <EXPR>                  Hook the provided address with an ESIL expression
    -i, --include <SYMBOL> <EXPR>             Assert symbol contains a string
    -L, --libs <libs>...                      Load libraries from path
        --max <max>                           Maximum number of states to keep at a time
    -m, --merge <merge>...                    Set address as a mergepoint
    -I, --not-include <SYMBOL> <EXPR>         Assert symbol does not contain a string
    -p, --path <path>                         Path to the target binary
    -r, --r2-cmd <CMD>...                     Run r2 command on launch
    -S, --set <REG/ADDR> <VALUE> <BITS>       Set memory or register values
    -s, --symbol <NAME> <BITS>                Create a symbolic value

This tool can be used to solve the same r100 crackme as above like

$ radius2 -p tests/r100 -a 0x4006fd -x 0x400790 -s flag 96 -S A0 0x100000 64 -S 0x100000 flag 96
  flag : "Code_Talkers"

Or even more quickly with strings using

$ radius2 -p tests/r100 -s stdin 96 -X Incorrect
  stdin : "Code_Talkers"
Commit count: 169

cargo fmt