created_at2019-04-22 01:18:47.241561
updated_at2022-10-31 00:14:03.504321
descriptionSmall packed strings
Graydon Hoare



# Sixbit - a crate for small packed strings. This crate provides densely-packed 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, 64-bit, and 128-bit "small strings", in a variety of custom script-specific 6-bit-per-character encodings, as well as a special 15-bit-per-character encoding for the set of Chinese characters in the "Unified Repertoire and Ordering" (URO) block of Unicode. This sort of datatype is a low-level optimization to use in a system processing a lot of small strings (eg. single words): you can avoid allocating them on the heap, store them in string-structure headers, NaN boxes or other sorts of small-literal value types. Perhaps most enticingly: you can pack _more than one of them_ into a SIMD vector, and operate on (eg. search) multiple such strings at once, in parallel, as a single register. Vector registers just keep growing these days. Of course not every string is short enough to fit, and not every short-enough string has codepoints that fall inside one of the "code pages" that this crate provides. The encoding functions are therefore all partial. But they should handle a significant enough quantity of strings to make it worthwhile. ## Usage Summary Encoding is done via the `EncodeSixbit` trait attached to `Iterator`, so you can just do: `let enc = "hello".chars().encode_sixbit::()`. If there is a failure (say, the string spans pages or doesn't fit) you'll get back an `Err(EncodeError)` with details, otherwise `Ok(n)` where `n` is a `u64`. Decoding is a `DecodeSixbitIter` iterator implementing `Iterator`, attached to the various packed types, allowing you to write `let s:String = someu64.decode_sixbit().collect()`, or any other pattern that takes an `Iterator`. In several cases you will need to normalize or decompose "standard" unicode text before pushing it through these interfaces. For example, the Hangul page only has compatibility jamo, so you have to decompose standard Korean text to that form before encoding. Similarly the Halfwidth Kana are unlikely to be the characters standard Japanese text arrives in, and Devanagari strings with nuktas will need to be decomposed before mapping. This crate does none of these tasks: it's a building block, not a complete solution. ## Code Pages Every packed string produced by this crate begins with a small tag indicating the "code page" of the rest of the string. A code page here is a set of 64 unicode character values that the 6-bit codes of the rest of the string are interpreted as (or, as a special case, the URO block). Strings that mix characters from multiple code pages are not supported. Again, think "single words". I have chosen the contents of the code pages to the best of my abilities in script knowledge, guesswork, consulting with friends and experts, scouring wikipedia and so forth, and subject to some constraints outlined below. I'm happy to take PRs to improve the contents of them to better capture "many words" in specific scripts; code page contents will therefore be slightly in flux until we get to a 1.0 release, so if by some bizarre chance you are reading this and choose to use the crate and are going to store values from this crate in stable storage, you should lock your client to a specific point-revision of the crate until 1.0. ### Constraints There is only enough room in the tag to reference a handful of code pages; not every script will make it, but luckily only a few scripts account for much of the text in the world. We want to avoid wasting bits, and the number of spare bits in a packed value of N bits (modulo 6) varies, depending on its size: 2 spare bits for 8, 32 and 128-bit values; 4 spare bits for 16 and 64-bit values. The tag for Chinese is allocated in all cases but there's only space for a nonzero sequence of the 15-bit codes in 32, 64 and 128-bit values, so only those widths use it; in 8 or 16-bit cases the tag is just reserved. We want to be able to sort these strings using machine-provided integer comparison, and have that order correspond to unicode code-point lexicographical string order (including "short strings sort before long"). This dictates a fair amount about the tag values, code repertoires, and normal form of the encoded strings. ### Design Code pages are taken from (or in some cases, across) unicode blocks, and tags are ordered by (initial) unicode block. Codes within each code page are further ordered by unicode codepoint: each code page is essentially a "likely-useful subsequence" of the contents of 1 or more corresponding unicode block(s). This unfortunately means that digits are only available in strings using the latin page (which also has underscore -- there is one space extra and it's common in many identifier repertoires). I've tried to include some additional punctuation where it's available in blocks. Since mixing pages is also not possible, "supplementary" blocks have been mostly avoided. A script can only work if there's a "likely-useful subsequence" that fits inside 63 code points (unless it's the URO block). The zero code in each page is reserved as the string _terminator_ and padding value. Strings that encode shorter than their packed value container are left-shifted to always begin at the most-significant coding bit, and the trailing bits are all set to zero (this does not mean you can encode nulls -- the zeroes here mean "past end of string"). The high order / 2-bit tags select among 4 "primary" (most-likely) scripts spread across the unicode range (in code block order). These are available in all packed values: | tag | page contents | |-----|--------------------------------------------| | 00 | Latin (with digits and underscore) | | 01 | Arabic | | 10 | Devanagari | | 11 | Chinese | When packing 64-bit and 16-bit values we get _4_ spare bits to use for a tag, not just 2. In these cases we therefore have 12 additional scripts available, which for simplicity sake casting up and down between value sizes we keep the high order bits the same and add 2 bits below, picking additional scripts _from the block ranges between_ those of the primary scripts (again, in unicode block order): | tag | page contents | |-------|-----------------------------------------------| | 00 00 | Latin (with digits and underscore) | | 00 01 | Greek | | 00 10 | Cyrillic | | 00 11 | Hebrew | | | | | 01 00 | Arabic | | 01 01 | *reserved* | | 01 10 | *reserved* | | 01 11 | *reserved* | | | | | 10 00 | Devanagari | | 10 01 | *reserved* | | 10 10 | *reserved* | | 10 11 | Hangul Compatibility Jamo | | | | | 11 00 | Chinese | | 11 01 | *reserved* | | 11 10 | *reserved* | | 11 11 | Halfwidth Kana | The *reserved* cases are where I either didn't know enough about the scripts available in that range of unicode, or ran out of good candidates, or both. I might assign them to something in the future, or "compact out" the gaps / reassign the 4-bit codes so their high bits are _not_ the same as the 2-bit cases, but I've already exceeded my realistic level of armchair-linguist knowledge and I figured simplifying design choices would be better than pretending I could do any better. Patches welcome! The overall assignment of bits is summarized as follows: | packed type | tag bits | coding bits | max 6-bit chars | max 15-bit chars | |-------------|----------|-------------|-----------------|------------------| | u128 | 2 | 126 | 21 | 8 | | u64 | 4 | 60 | 10 | 4 | | u32 | 2 | 30 | 5 | 2 | | u16 | 4 | 12 | 2 | 0 | | u8 | 2 | 6 | 1 | 0 | License: MIT OR Apache-2.0
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cargo fmt