created_at2016-08-02 03:06:33.334539
updated_at2023-12-05 13:10:51.661359
descriptionA pure Rust implementation of the Snappy compression algorithm. Includes streaming compression and decompression.
Andrew Gallant (BurntSushi)




A pure Rust implementation of the Snappy compression algorithm. Includes streaming compression and decompression using the Snappy frame format. This implementation is ported from both the reference C++ implementation and the Go implementation.

Build status

Licensed under the BSD 3-Clause.



Add this to your Cargo.toml:

snap = "1"

Example: compress data on stdin

This program reads data from stdin, compresses it and emits it to stdout. This example can be found in examples/

use std::io;

fn main() {
    let stdin = io::stdin();
    let stdout = io::stdout();

    let mut rdr = stdin.lock();
    // Wrap the stdout writer in a Snappy writer.
    let mut wtr = snap::write::FrameEncoder::new(stdout.lock());
    io::copy(&mut rdr, &mut wtr).expect("I/O operation failed");

Example: decompress data on stdin

This program reads data from stdin, decompresses it and emits it to stdout. This example can be found in examples/

use std::io;

fn main() {
    let stdin = io::stdin();
    let stdout = io::stdout();

    // Wrap the stdin reader in a Snappy reader.
    let mut rdr = snap::read::FrameDecoder::new(stdin.lock());
    let mut wtr = stdout.lock();
    io::copy(&mut rdr, &mut wtr).expect("I/O operation failed");

Example: the szip tool

szip is a tool with similar behavior as gzip, except it uses Snappy compression. It can be installed with Cargo:

$ cargo install szip

To compress a file, run szip file. To decompress a file, run szip -d See szip --help for more details.


This crate is tested against the reference C++ implementation of Snappy. Currently, compression is byte-for-byte equivalent with the C++ implementation. This seems like a reasonable starting point, although it is not necessarily a goal to always maintain byte-for-byte equivalence.

Tests against the reference C++ implementation can be run with cargo test --features cpp. Note that you will need to have the C++ Snappy library in your LD_LIBRARY_PATH (or equivalent).

To run tests, you'll need to explicitly run the test crate:

$ cargo test --manifest-path test/Cargo.toml

To test that this library matches the output of the reference C++ library, use:

$ cargo test --manifest-path test/Cargo.toml --features cpp

Tests are in a separate crate because of the dependency on the C++ reference library. Namely, Cargo does not yet permit optional dev dependencies.

Minimum Rust version policy

This crate's minimum supported rustc version is 1.39.0.

The current policy is that the minimum Rust version required to use this crate can be increased in minor version updates. For example, if crate 1.0 requires Rust 1.20.0, then crate 1.0.z for all values of z will also require Rust 1.20.0 or newer. However, crate 1.y for y > 0 may require a newer minimum version of Rust.

In general, this crate will be conservative with respect to the minimum supported version of Rust.


The performance of this implementation should roughly match the performance of the C++ implementation on x86_64. Below are the results of the microbenchmarks (as defined in the C++ library):

group                         snappy/cpp/                            snappy/snap/
-----                         -----------                            ------------
compress/zflat00_html         1.00     94.5±0.62µs  1033.1 MB/sec    1.02     96.1±0.74µs  1016.2 MB/sec
compress/zflat01_urls         1.00   1182.3±8.89µs   566.3 MB/sec    1.04  1235.3±11.99µs   542.0 MB/sec
compress/zflat02_jpg          1.00      7.2±0.11µs    15.9 GB/sec    1.01      7.3±0.06µs    15.8 GB/sec
compress/zflat03_jpg_200      1.10    262.4±1.84ns   727.0 MB/sec    1.00    237.5±2.95ns   803.2 MB/sec
compress/zflat04_pdf          1.02     10.3±0.18µs     9.2 GB/sec    1.00     10.1±0.16µs     9.4 GB/sec
compress/zflat05_html4        1.00    399.2±5.36µs   978.4 MB/sec    1.01    404.0±2.46µs   966.8 MB/sec
compress/zflat06_txt1         1.00    397.3±2.61µs   365.1 MB/sec    1.00    398.5±3.06µs   364.0 MB/sec
compress/zflat07_txt2         1.00    352.8±3.20µs   338.4 MB/sec    1.01    355.2±5.01µs   336.1 MB/sec
compress/zflat08_txt3         1.01   1058.8±6.85µs   384.4 MB/sec    1.00   1051.8±6.74µs   386.9 MB/sec
compress/zflat09_txt4         1.00   1444.1±8.10µs   318.2 MB/sec    1.00  1450.0±13.36µs   316.9 MB/sec
compress/zflat10_pb           1.00     85.1±0.58µs  1328.6 MB/sec    1.02     87.0±0.90µs  1300.2 MB/sec
compress/zflat11_gaviota      1.07    311.9±4.27µs   563.5 MB/sec    1.00    291.9±1.86µs   602.3 MB/sec
decompress/uflat00_html       1.03     36.9±0.28µs     2.6 GB/sec    1.00     36.0±0.25µs     2.7 GB/sec
decompress/uflat01_urls       1.04    437.4±2.89µs  1530.7 MB/sec    1.00    419.9±3.10µs  1594.6 MB/sec
decompress/uflat02_jpg        1.00      4.6±0.05µs    24.9 GB/sec    1.00      4.6±0.03µs    25.0 GB/sec
decompress/uflat03_jpg_200    1.08    122.4±1.06ns  1558.6 MB/sec    1.00    112.8±1.35ns  1690.8 MB/sec
decompress/uflat04_pdf        1.00      5.7±0.05µs    16.8 GB/sec    1.10      6.2±0.07µs    15.3 GB/sec
decompress/uflat05_html4      1.01    164.1±1.71µs     2.3 GB/sec    1.00    162.6±2.16µs     2.3 GB/sec
decompress/uflat06_txt1       1.08    146.6±1.01µs   989.5 MB/sec    1.00    135.3±1.11µs  1072.0 MB/sec
decompress/uflat07_txt2       1.09    130.2±0.93µs   916.6 MB/sec    1.00    119.2±0.96µs  1001.8 MB/sec
decompress/uflat08_txt3       1.07    387.2±2.30µs  1051.0 MB/sec    1.00    361.9±6.29µs  1124.7 MB/sec
decompress/uflat09_txt4       1.09    536.1±3.47µs   857.2 MB/sec    1.00    494.0±5.05µs   930.2 MB/sec
decompress/uflat10_pb         1.00     32.5±0.19µs     3.4 GB/sec    1.05     34.0±0.48µs     3.2 GB/sec
decompress/uflat11_gaviota    1.00    142.1±2.05µs  1236.7 MB/sec    1.00    141.5±0.92µs  1242.3 MB/sec

Notes: These benchmarks were run with Snappy/C++ 1.1.8. Both the C++ and Rust benchmarks were run with the same benchmark harness. Benchmarks were run on an Intel i7-6900K.

Additionally, here are the benchmarks run on the same machine from the Go implementation of Snappy (which has a hand rolled implementation in Assembly). Note that these were run using Go's microbenchmark tool, so the numbers may not be directly comparable, but they should serve as a useful signpost:

Benchmark_UFlat0           25040             45180 ns/op        2266.49 MB/s
Benchmark_UFlat1            2648            451475 ns/op        1555.10 MB/s
Benchmark_UFlat2          229965              4788 ns/op        25709.01 MB/s
Benchmark_UFlat3        11355555               101 ns/op        1973.65 MB/s
Benchmark_UFlat4          196551              6055 ns/op        16912.64 MB/s
Benchmark_UFlat5            6016            189219 ns/op        2164.68 MB/s
Benchmark_UFlat6            6914            166371 ns/op         914.16 MB/s
Benchmark_UFlat7            8173            142506 ns/op         878.41 MB/s
Benchmark_UFlat8            2744            436424 ns/op         977.84 MB/s
Benchmark_UFlat9            1999            591141 ns/op         815.14 MB/s
Benchmark_UFlat10          28885             37291 ns/op        3180.04 MB/s
Benchmark_UFlat11           7308            163366 ns/op        1128.26 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat0           12902             91231 ns/op        1122.43 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat1             997           1200579 ns/op         584.79 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat2          136762              7832 ns/op        15716.53 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat3         4896124               245 ns/op         817.27 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat4          117643             10129 ns/op        10109.44 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat5            2934            394742 ns/op        1037.64 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat6            3008            382877 ns/op         397.23 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat7            3411            344916 ns/op         362.93 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat8             966           1057985 ns/op         403.36 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat9             854           1429024 ns/op         337.20 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat10          13861             83040 ns/op        1428.08 MB/s
Benchmark_ZFlat11           4070            293952 ns/op         627.04 MB/s

To run benchmarks, including the reference C++ implementation, do the following:

$ cd bench
$ cargo bench --features cpp -- --save-baseline snappy

To compare them, as shown above, install critcmp and run (assuming you saved the baseline above under the name snappy):

$ critcmp snappy -g '.*?/(.*$)'

Finally, the Go benchmarks were run with the following command on commit ff6b7dc8:

$ go test -cpu 1 -bench Flat -download

Comparison with other Snappy crates

  • snappy - These are bindings to the C++ library. No support for the Snappy frame format.
  • snappy_framed - Implements the Snappy frame format on top of the snappy crate.
  • rsnappy - Written in pure Rust, but lacks documentation and the Snappy frame format. Performance is unclear and tests appear incomplete.
  • snzip - Was created and immediately yanked from
Commit count: 131

cargo fmt